Structured cabling refers to building infrastructure using standard materials called subsystems. There are usually five of these subsystems, including the demarcation point, telecommunication space, vertical and horizontal cables, and work area components.
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A demarcation point is a point in the network that marks the company's end of the telephone network and connects to the company location where the network is installed. These are the points that determine who is responsible for the installation and maintenance of cables and other equipment.
The telecommunication room is used for equipment storage and also serves as a cable consolidation point serving users at the premises where the cabling system is installed. Vertical cables connect various equipment rooms, which are usually located on different floors or at different locations within the building.
Horizontal wiring is used to connect telecommunication rooms to independent electrical outlets located on the floor of a building, on a duct, or in some cases, on the floor. Workspace components connect end-user tools to a retail store.
There are standards governing structured cable design and installation. This standard typically specifies offices, wired data centers, and residential buildings for voice or data communications using a variety of structured cables such as fiber optic, Category 5f, Category 6, and other modular connectors.
Cable standards are very important in determining how cables should be routed, depending on the topology, to meet customers' specific needs. This is usually done via the connector panel.